Antioxidant and cytotoxic flavonoids from the flowers of Melastoma malabathricum L.
Phytochemical and bioactivity studies of the flowers of Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomataceae) have been carried out. The ethyl acetate extract yielded three compounds, identified as naringenin, kaempferol and kaempferol-3-O-d-glucoside, and methanol extract gave kaempferol-3-O-(2″,6″-di-O-p-trans-coumaroyl)glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-d-glucoside. The crude extracts and isolated compounds were screened for their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The antioxidant assay was carried out by the DPPH radical-scavenging electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic method. The cytotoxicity was measured by the MTT assay against a MCF7 cell line. Naringenin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-d-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-(2″,6″-di-O-p-trans-coumaroyl) glucoside, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were found to be active as radical-scavengers with IC50 values of 0.52 mM, 81.5 μM, 1.07 mM, 35.8 μM, 7.21 μg/ml and 6.59 μg/ml, respectively. Naringenin and kaempferol-3-O-(2″,6″-di-O-p-trans-coumaroyl)glucoside were also found to be active in inhibiting cell proliferation of MCF7 with IC50 values of 0.28 μM and 1.3 μM, respectively.